Dr. Alex Jimenez, El Paso's Chiropractor
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Improving reproductive health: Reducing Neuroinflammation and Obesity. Pt.3

After learning the intricacies between neuronal signaling and gastrointestinal hormonal stimulation, we now understand how they influence each other. However, we need to take into account the environment in which these processes are taking place. Is the patient overweight or obese? Is there a chance that adipose-induced inflammation influences reproductive health? The neuroinflammation promoted by a high-fat diet is strongly associated with a detrimental effect on reproductive health.

Obesity-induced macrophage infiltration

A high-fat diet and sedentary lifestyle associate with higher adipose tissue levels, creating an inflammatory milieu known as chronic inflammation. Indeed, an increase in adipose tissue is followed by a progressive infiltration of macrophages, resulting in a vicious circle leading up increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. 

Furthermore, visceral fat has a higher concentration of macrophages than subcutaneous adipose tissue. The activation of macrophages is stimulated by adipocyte growth and the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 or CCL1 chemokine). This process lures monocytes and leads to macrophage activation. In addition, elevated leptin concentrations lead to macrophage accumulation in the adipose tissue and the adhesion of macrophages to endothelial cells. However, the patient’s body composition plays a determinant role in the activation of macrophages. Studies show that macrophages of lean individuals show an M2 phenotype which secretes anti-inflammatory cytokines. On the contrary, those obese individuals showed macrophage-induced pro-inflammatory markers like TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1B.

Besides this mechanism, the recruitment of macrophages at the organs had an impactful effect on health. For instance, macrophage recruitment in the liver coincides with insulin resistance. A recent study shows that the recruitment of macrophages in the brain has been localized in the hypothalamus of obese male mice. In addition, this study reported a higher macrophage recruitment rate in male mice than in female mice. This last finding may explain why males have a higher propensity to obesity-mediated neuroinflammation.

How to target obesity?

Functional medicine treatment starts on detecting the issue.  Therefore, anthropometry and the determination of our patient’s body composition are essential to plan the treatment. With the use of top-notch technology, with InBody 770 we can measure fat deposits, water content, and muscles mass and follow up the improvements.

Related Posts

Brain immunity and reproduction

Neuroinflammation tightly associates with the ingestion of a high-fat diet and the rise of systemic inflammation. Adipose-associated inflammation contributes to the apparition of diseases like dementia or cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, the brain’s resident immune cells, microglia, have the function of maintaining standard circuitry and good plasticity by cropping synapses. Microglial cells activate in response to injury, disease, infection by engulfing damaged synapses and secreting cytokines, which might recruit peripheral immune cells. These mechanisms occur when neurons communicate via fractalkine and its receptor, CX3CR1, with microglial cells. 

However, obesity-induced inflammation causes two significant changes in the structure and function of microglial cells affecting reductive health. Indeed, obesity alters the expression of fractalkine and CX3CR1 inhibiting important neuron-microglial communication. The second change is microglial activation to the M1 phenotype associate with the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. This mechanism is activated due to a high concentration of fatty tissue, specifically visceral fat accumulation. 

Blood-brain barrier obesity-induced permeability 

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is composed of endothelial cells that express tight junction proteins, interspersed pericytes embedded in the basement membrane, and perivascular space bordered by astrocytic endfeet of the glia limitans. The BBB properties conferred an immune privilege to the CNS until BBB permeability became more common as the obesity pandemic evolved.

There are several theories of how obesity and BBB permeability interact with the inhibition of reproductive mechanisms. One of them being the increase of cytokine levels promoted by obesity or HFD. Furthermore, this mechanism activates the gene expression of glial cells and neurons located near the fenestrated capillaries. Consequently, microglial cells activate and commence the recruitment of macrophages and increase the synthesis and release of cytokines. 

Obesity is a multifactorial disease that affects more than 30% of the adult population in the United States. Despite being a significant public health concern due to its harmful effects o cardiovascular and metabolic health, it also results in reproductive complications. Furthermore, the interplay between hunger cues, gastrointestinal hormones, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and neuronal circuitry implies that reproductive health is not only a reproductive issue. Indeed, reproductive issues should be treated with a multi-faceted treatment that includes anti-inflammatory measures to decrease cytokine levels, weight management, and antioxidant supplementation. – Ana Paola Rodríguez Arciniega, MS

References:

Lainez, N. M., & Coss, D. (2019). Obesity, Neuroinflammation, and Reproductive Function. Endocrinology160(11), 2719–2736. doi.org/10.1210/en.2019-00487

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Professional Scope of Practice *

The information herein on "Improving reproductive health: Reducing Neuroinflammation and Obesity. Pt.3" is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional, licensed physician, and is not medical advice. We encourage you to make your own health care decisions based on your research and partnership with a qualified health care professional.

Our information scope is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal, physical medicines, wellness, sensitive health issues, functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We provide and present clinical collaboration with specialists from a wide array of disciplines. Each specialist is governed by their professional scope of practice and their jurisdiction of licensure. We use functional health & wellness protocols to treat and support care for the injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system.

Our videos, posts, topics, subjects, and insights cover clinical matters, issues, and topics that relate to and support, directly or indirectly, our clinical scope of practice.*

Our office has made a reasonable attempt to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We provide copies of supporting research studies available to regulatory boards and the public upon request.

We understand that we cover matters that require an additional explanation of how it may assist in a particular care plan or treatment protocol; therefore, to further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900.

We are here to help you and your family.

Blessings

Dr. Alex Jimenez DC, MSACP, CCST, IFMCP*, CIFM*, ATN*

email: coach@elpasofunctionalmedicine.com

Licensed in: Texas & New Mexico*

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Our Purpose & Passions: I am a Doctor of Chiropractic specializing in progressive, cutting-edge therapies and functional rehabilitation procedures focused on clinical physiology, total health, practical strength training, and complete conditioning. We focus on restoring normal body functions after neck, back, spinal and soft tissue injuries.

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Additional Online Links & Resources (Available 24/7)

  1. Online Appointments or Consultations:  bit.ly/Book-Online-Appointment
  2. Online Physical Injury / Accident Intake Form:  bit.ly/Fill-Out-Your-Online-History
  3. Online Functional Medicine Assessment:  bit.ly/functionmed

Disclaimer *

The information herein is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional, licensed physician, and is not medical advice. We encourage you to make your own health care decisions based on your research and partnership with a qualified health care professional. Our information scope is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal, physical medicines, wellness, sensitive health issues, functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We provide and present clinical collaboration with specialists from a wide array of disciplines. Each specialist is governed by their professional scope of practice and their jurisdiction of licensure. We use functional health & wellness protocols to treat and support care for the injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Our videos, posts, topics, subjects, and insights cover clinical matters, issues, and topics that relate to and support, directly or indirectly, our clinical scope of practice.* Our office has made a reasonable attempt to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We provide copies of supporting research studies available to regulatory boards and the public upon request.

We understand that we cover matters that require an additional explanation of how it may assist in a particular care plan or treatment protocol; therefore, to further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900.

Dr. Alex Jimenez DC, MSACP, CCST, IFMCP*, CIFM*, ATN*

email: coach@elpasofunctionalmedicine.com

phone: 915-850-0900

Licensed in Texas & New Mexico *

Post Disclaimer

Professional Scope of Practice *

The information herein on "Improving reproductive health: Reducing Neuroinflammation and Obesity. Pt.3" is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional, licensed physician, and is not medical advice. We encourage you to make your own health care decisions based on your research and partnership with a qualified health care professional.

Our information scope is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal, physical medicines, wellness, sensitive health issues, functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We provide and present clinical collaboration with specialists from a wide array of disciplines. Each specialist is governed by their professional scope of practice and their jurisdiction of licensure. We use functional health & wellness protocols to treat and support care for the injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system.

Our videos, posts, topics, subjects, and insights cover clinical matters, issues, and topics that relate to and support, directly or indirectly, our clinical scope of practice.*

Our office has made a reasonable attempt to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We provide copies of supporting research studies available to regulatory boards and the public upon request.

We understand that we cover matters that require an additional explanation of how it may assist in a particular care plan or treatment protocol; therefore, to further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900.

We are here to help you and your family.

Blessings

Dr. Alex Jimenez DC, MSACP, CCST, IFMCP*, CIFM*, ATN*

email: coach@elpasofunctionalmedicine.com

Licensed in: Texas & New Mexico*