The body secretes and circulates 50 different hormones to different organs in the body. Hormones are the chemical substances that coordinate the activities of living organism growth. They are secreted through the endocrine glands and travel through the bloodstream to different organs in the body to function properly. When there is an excessive quantity or an reduced quantity of hormones being produced, it can cause the body to malfunction and develop chronic illnesses.
In neuroendocrinology, an endocrine gland can’t make a hormone without activation from a pituitary-stimulating hormone. The pituitary-stimulating hormone helps regulate hormones by secreting them to the endocrine glands. The pituitary gland is known as the “master gland” since it controls the activity of the other endocrine glands and it consists of 3 parts known as the anterior, intermediate and posterior lobes.
The anterior pituitary gland is located in the sella turcica and is controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain. It secretes a quantity of peptides and glycoprotein hormones that help regulate the growth, metabolism, reproduction and stress response. The anterior pituitary gland produces 6 hormones that circulate to their respective targets in the body.
The intermediate lobe is composed of a homogeneous population of the endocrine cells, the melanotrophs and secretes several bioactive peptides. It contains very few blood vessels and can be virtually avascular. The melanotrophs are richly supplied by nerve fibers that originate from the hypothalamus.
The posterior lobe is similar to the anterior lobe since they both control endocrine function and the body’s hormonal response to the environment. The hypothalamus receives neural signals from the brain and secretes polypeptide and neuropeptide hormones for storage in the posterior lobe until they are ready to be released. The hormones in the posterior lobe are in charge of regulating water retention and inducing uterine contractions.
When an endocrine gland synthesizes a hormone, it is released into circulation and bound to as a protein. Hormones attach themselves to proteins but they can’t bind to hormone receptors. So what a hormone needs to do is to lose its binding protein to become a “free-fraction” hormone. Studies have stated that a fraction of a hormone that is free is called in vitro and it is equivalent to the fraction of a hormone that is free and available to be transported into tissues are called in vivo. Free-fraction hormones make up less than 1% of all circulating hormones since they don’t impact the hypothalamus-pituitary feedback loop.
Hormones are metabolized by hepatic and microbiome biotransformation pathways into various hormone metabolites. Hormone metabolites have their own impact on cell receptors, studies have shown that this impact is not fully understood yet but hormone metabolites are not a reflection of direct endocrine gland production but it can be metabolized in the liver as well. Hormone metabolites can bind to hormone receptors or can be eliminated by renal or fecal clearance pathways.
All in all, the body secretes and circulates 50 different hormones to different organs in the body. These hormones are chemically produced in the body and keep an eye on what each of the different organs is doing. It is important that the hormone receptors are functioning properly so that an individual is feeling good both inside and out. If there is a hormonal imbalance in the body, it can cause dysfunction and chronic illnesses to a person.
October is Chiropractic Health Month. To learn more about it, check out Governor Abbott’s proclamation on our website to get full details on this declaration.
The scope of our information is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal and nervous health issues as well as functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We use functional health protocols to treat injuries or chronic disorders of the musculoskeletal system. To further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900 .
Allen, Mary J. “Physiology, Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH).” StatPearls [Internet]., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 3 Mar. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK500031/.
Clinic, Cleveland. “Overactive Pituitary Gland & Hyperpituitarism.” Cleveland Clinic, 22 Mar. 2017, my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15173-pituitary-gland–hyperpituitarism-overactive-pituitary-gland.
Cuzzo, Brian. “Vasopressin (Antidiuretic Hormone, ADH).” StatPearls [Internet]., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2 Feb. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526069/.
Ellis, Mary Ellen, and Rachel Nall. “Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Test: What It Is and Why It’s Important.” Healthline, 29 Aug. 2017, www.healthline.com/health/lh-blood-test.
Ellis, Ronald E, and Gillian M Stanfield. “The Regulation of Spermatogenesis and Sperm Function in Nematodes.” Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, May 2014, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4082717/.
Freeman, M E, et al. “Prolactin: Structure, Function, and Regulation of Secretion.” Physiological Reviews, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Oct. 2000, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11015620.
Genes, S G. “Role of the Liver in Hormone Metabolism and in the Regulation of Their Content in the Blood.” Arkhiv Patologii, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1977, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/334126.
Goyal, Shikha. “List of Important Hormones and Their Functions.” Jagranjosh.com, 12 Mar. 2019, www.jagranjosh.com/general-knowledge/list-of-important-hormones-and-their-functions-1516176713-1.
Gunawardane, Kavinga. “Normal Physiology of Growth Hormone in Adults.” Endotext [Internet]., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 12 Nov. 2015, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279056/.
Hadley, M E, et al. “Biological Actions of Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone.” Ciba Foundation Symposium, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1981, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6268380.
Lamacz, M, et al. “The Intermediate Lobe of the Pituitary, Model of Neuroendocrine Communication.” Archives Internationales De Physiologie, De Biochimie Et De Biophysique, U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 1991, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1717055.
Lee, Heon-Jin, et al. “Oxytocin: the Great Facilitator of Life.” Progress in Neurobiology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 2009, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2689929/.
M., William. “Transport of Protein-Bound Hormones into Tissues in Vivo *.” OUP Academic, Oxford University Press, 1 Jan. 1981, academic.oup.com/edrv/article-abstract/2/1/103/2548700?redirectedFrom=fulltext.
MacGill, Markus. “Oxytocin: The Love Hormone?” Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 4 Sept. 2017, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/275795.php.
MacGill, Markus. “Testosterone: Functions, Deficiencies, and Supplements.” Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 6 Feb. 2019, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/276013.php.
Nichols, Hannah. “Estrogen: Functions, Uses, and Imbalances.” Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 2 Jan. 2018, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/277177.php.
Patel, Hiran. “Physiology, Posterior Pituitary.” StatPearls [Internet]., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 27 Oct. 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526130/.
Rawindraraj, Antony D. “Physiology, Anterior Pituitary.” StatPearls [Internet]., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 25 Apr. 2019, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499898/.
Researchers, Various. “Thyroid Hormone Synthesis.” Thyroid Hormone Synthesis – an Overview | ScienceDirect Topics, 2019, www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/thyroid-hormone-synthesis.
Rousset, Bernard. “Chapter 2 Thyroid Hormone Synthesis And Secretion.” Endotext [Internet]., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2 Sept. 2015, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK285550/.
Seladi-Schulman, Jill. “Everything You Need to Know About Progesterone.” Healthline, 29 Apr. 2019, www.healthline.com/health/progesterone-function.
The information herein on "Functional Endocrinology: Understanding Hormones From the Pituitary to the Receptor Sites" is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional, licensed physician, and is not medical advice. We encourage you to make your own health care decisions based on your research and partnership with a qualified health care professional.
Our information scope is limited to chiropractic, musculoskeletal, physical medicines, wellness, sensitive health issues, functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions. We provide and present clinical collaboration with specialists from a wide array of disciplines. Each specialist is governed by their professional scope of practice and their jurisdiction of licensure. We use functional health & wellness protocols to treat and support care for the injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system.
Our videos, posts, topics, subjects, and insights cover clinical matters, issues, and topics that relate to and support, directly or indirectly, our clinical scope of practice.*
Our office has made a reasonable attempt to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We provide copies of supporting research studies available to regulatory boards and the public upon request.
We understand that we cover matters that require an additional explanation of how it may assist in a particular care plan or treatment protocol; therefore, to further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez or contact us at 915-850-0900.
We are here to help you and your family.
https://youtu.be/XVNV5-UUufk On today’s podcast Dr. Jimenez DC, health coaches Adriana Caceres and Faith Arciniaga will… Read More
One of the most common tendons in the body that gets injured is the Achilles… Read More
https://youtu.be/sOolG4CEBic On today’s podcast Spencer Salas and Dr. Alex Jimenez discuss CBD, TCH, and Hemp.… Read More
Personal Injury, Trauma & Spine Rehab. Specialists