Anti Aging

Aging & Longevity: Mitochondrial Genetic Pathways


Over the last decade, we have seen a growth in the Elderly population. A broad set of socioeconomic and biochemical challenges are included in the aging process. While the human species has increased their longevity, aging and the molecular mechanisms that come with it need to be addressed and modulated to decrease the risk of degenerative diseases. 

By understanding the molecular function of aging, we can tell that mitochondrial function is a cornerstone of this process. Therefore, we need a multidisciplinary anti-aging approach to improve mitochondrial function to treat, modulate, and reverse degenerative diseases.


Aging associates with a progressive decline of organ function, increasing the risk of degenerative disease and death. From a molecular point of view, aging is a consequence of the lifelog damage accumulation in tissues, such as lipidic membranes, proteins, and DNA sequences. Furthermore, genetic research has identified multiple mitochondrial signaling pathways that influence the aging rate of organisms. In addition, these pathways have evolved to modulate critical processes, which depend directly on the availability of substrates like nutrients and energy. 

Most evolutionary theories in aging report that this mechanism is less likely to be a programmed process, where the mechanism is to sacrifice the older individual in favor of the young. Otherwise known as natural selection. On the other hand, research supports the principle in which the optimization of resources, such as energy and nutrients, contributes to growth and reproduction or maintenance and repair functions in organisms. In fact, this theory might explain the differences in aging between species. For example, some species prioritized growth and reproduction, increasing the aging and degeneration rate. On the other hand, longer-lived species focused their resources on repair and maintenance by enabling genetic adaptation to the environment leading to better survival. 

If this theory is correct (and I do believe it is), the next step is to determine which cellular components harvest the most damage in their structure, leading to functional decline. Consequently, this will provide a practical approach that will deliver the substrates to modulate the pathways that ensure maintenance and repair of the organism.

Mitochondria and its functions.

Commonly known as the powerhouse of the cell, mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles. Mitochondria anatomy is comprised of 4 significant compartments, each one of them with its structural function.

  • Mitochondrial outer membrane: This is a highly porous structure, perforated with large channels that enable the entry of molecules. It also contains enzymes involved in mitochondrial lipid synthesis.
  • Mitochondrial intermembrane space: The space between the inner and the outer membrane, this compartment gathers the H protons, enabling ATP formation by ATP-synthase.
  • Mitochondrial inner membrane: It is considered an impermeable layer comprised of folder cardiolipin-rich cristae. It holds all the protein complexes of the electron transport chain (ETC) and ATP synthase.
  • Mitochondrial Matrix: This is the internal space of the mitochondrion. It holds the Krebs cycle enzymes, mtDNA, ribosomes, GSH, mtRNA, and nitric oxide.

Mitochondrial functions rely on the integrity of its anatomical structure that enables the harvest of H+ protons and maintains ion gradients, calcium buffering, production of ROS, cell signaling, growth regulation, and energy production in the form of ATP. Furthermore, all of these capacities position mitochondrial function in the spotlight of bioenergetic research.

Mitochondrial function, repair, and apoptosis depend on an intricate bi-directional pathway between the mitochondrial and the nucleus. Furthermore, the mtDNA structure is organized into nucleoids, which are closely associated with the mitochondrial inner membrane. Indeed, the inner membrane produces ROS, and this mechanism is why mtDNA is expected to go under constant oxidative damage. Nevertheless, DNA repair pathways, such as base excision repair (BER), seem to play a crucial role in repairing DNA structure mainly through nucleotides recycled from the mitochondrial metabolic processes or imported by the cytoplasm.

Therefore any genetic defect on the mechanisms that supply nucleotides would reflect in mtDNA depletion syndromes (MDS), resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction.

Aging has become a diagnosis, not just something that happens over time. All the theories point out that dysregulation of mitochondrial function is a cornerstone of significant organ dysfunction and degenerative diseases. Understanding how the mitochondria regulate, modulate, and produce energy and ROS will provide the proper treatment to counteract the oxidative process and increase mitochondrial biogenesis. – Ana Paola Rodríguez Arciniega, MS


Akbari, Mansour et al. “Mitochondria in the signaling pathways that control longevity and healthspan.” Aging research reviews vol. 54 (2019): 100940. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2019.100940

Additional Online Links & Resources (Available 24/7)


Online Appointments or Consultations:


Online Physical Injury / Accident Intake Form: 


Online Functional Medicine Assessment:


Post Disclaimer

Professional Scope of Practice *

The information herein on "Aging & Longevity: Mitochondrial Genetic Pathways" is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional or licensed physician and is not medical advice. We encourage you to make healthcare decisions based on your research and partnership with a qualified healthcare professional.

Blog Information & Scope Discussions

Our information scope is limited to Chiropractic, musculoskeletal, acupuncture, physical medicines, wellness, contributing etiological viscerosomatic disturbances within clinical presentations, associated somatovisceral reflex clinical dynamics, subluxation complexes, sensitive health issues, and/or functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions.

We provide and present clinical collaboration with specialists from various disciplines. Each specialist is governed by their professional scope of practice and their jurisdiction of licensure. We use functional health & wellness protocols to treat and support care for the injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system.

Our videos, posts, topics, subjects, and insights cover clinical matters, issues, and topics that relate to and directly or indirectly support our clinical scope of practice.*

Our office has reasonably attempted to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research studies supporting our posts. We provide copies of supporting research studies available to regulatory boards and the public upon request.

We understand that we cover matters that require an additional explanation of how it may assist in a particular care plan or treatment protocol; therefore, to further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez, DC, or contact us at 915-850-0900.

We are here to help you and your family.


Dr. Alex Jimenez DC, MSACP, RN*, CCST, IFMCP*, CIFM*, ATN*


Licensed as a Doctor of Chiropractic (DC) in Texas & New Mexico*
Texas DC License # TX5807, New Mexico DC License # NM-DC2182

Licensed as a Registered Nurse (RN*) in Florida
Florida License RN License # RN9617241 (Control No. 3558029)
Compact Status: Multi-State License: Authorized to Practice in 40 States*

Presently Matriculated: ICHS: MSN* FNP (Family Nurse Practitioner Program)

Dr. Alex Jimenez DC, MSACP, RN* CIFM*, IFMCP*, ATN*, CCST
My Digital Business Card

Recent Posts

Swayback Posture: Identifying and Treating the Issue

Can chiropractic treatment alleviate pain and correct swayback posture, a postural deformity that can cause… Read More

June 14, 2024

Heat Exhaustion vs. Stroke: Effects on the Musculoskeletal System Explained

Do individuals with muscle pain know the difference between heat stroke and heat exhaustion and… Read More

June 14, 2024

A Guide to Low-Sugar Fruits

Can fruit help with a sweet craving for individuals trying to limit sugar? Fruits Low… Read More

June 13, 2024

The Benefits of Cycling for Osteoarthritis: A Comprehensive Guide

Can individuals with osteoarthritis can incorporate cycling to reduce joint pain and regain their joint… Read More

June 13, 2024

Achieve Your Fitness Goals Faster with Sprint Exercise Training

For individuals who don't have time for a full workout, could incorporating sprint exercise training… Read More

June 12, 2024

Exploring the Clinical Approach and the Importance of Nursing

How do healthcare professionals provide a clinical approach in the role of nursing to reducing… Read More

June 12, 2024